By Cat, Jan 2015 (Photo, right, from Wikimedia Commons, originally by Sage Ross); as I learn more, I make updates to this article.
True nuts (in the botanical sense) are the fruit of certain trees or shrubs; however, many seeds are commonly called ‘nuts’ in culinary/dietary use. Common nuts in this sense include (1): acorn, almonds, brazil nut, cashew, chestnut, coconut, hazelnut, macadamia, pecan, pine nut (pignoli), pistachio, and walnut.
- See also: 1. Foods (About) Menu; 2. Soaking, Sprouting Nuts & Seeds
- Includes: 1. Nutrition in nuts; 2. Serving Size Recommendations
Daily snack of nuts important for longevity
Nuts are an important part of my daily life on the ketogenic eating plan to reset my metabolism, but everyone can benefit from their health benefits. I include them in salads, and eat a small handful in the evening while relaxing.
A large-scale, 30-year long Harvard study published in 2013 (6,7,8) found that people who ate a small handful (approximately one ounce or 28 grams) of nuts daily (seven times per week or more) were 20 percent less likely to die for any reason, compared to those who avoided nuts. “‘Even those who ate nuts less than once a week had a seven percent reduction in risk. Consuming nuts at least five times a week corresponded to a 29 percent drop in mortality risk for heart disease, a 24 percent decline for respiratory disease and an 11 percent drop for cancer.” (8,9)
And the good news about nuts just keeps coming. A March 2015 research abstract reveals: “Researchers at Maastricht University nvestigated the link between specific nuts and diseases, and found that those who ate at least 10 grams (0.3 ounces) of nuts or peanuts a day had an average 23 percent reduced risk of death due to cancer, diabetes, respiratory- and neurodegenerative diseases during the decade-long study.” (8,10)
Nutrition in nuts
See also Specific Nutrients of Several Nuts and 8 Nuts for Healthy Aging, below.
Overall nutrient content of nuts puts them quite high in good fats, relatively high in protein, and moderate in carbs. For example (5):
- 1 oz of raw almonds is approximately 24 almonds and represents 164 calories, 14.4 g fat, 0 mg sodium, 5.6 g carbohydrates, 3.3 g of fiber, 1.4 g sugar and 6 g of protein.
- 1 oz of raw cashews is approximately 16-18 cashews and represents 160 calories, 12 g fat, 0 mg sodium, 9 g carbohydrates, 1 g of fiber, 2 g sugar and 5 g of protein.
Nuts are an important part of a paleo-diet or ketogenic-diet which include high levels of fat; however, nuts are excellent snack no matter what diet/eating plan you follow.
From Dr. Sara Solomon (5), nuts are excellent snacks (between meals):
- Thanks to their high fiber, fat and protein content, nuts make you feel full and provide you with sustained energy levels. As a result, you’re less likely to overeat at subsequent meals.
- Evidence links regular nut consumption with greater resting energy expenditure, which is a fancy way of saying, “nuts increase your metabolism.”
Fats: Nuts generally are rich in oils that contain (1, 2):
- mono-unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and palmitoleic acid;
- PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) are a type of essential fatty acid that is known to have beneficial effects on the heart. (11a)
- polyunsaturated Omega-3 fatty acids such as α-linolenic (ALA), Eicosapentaenoic, and Docosahexonic acid. Walnuts are an excellent source of ALA, which along with antioxidants (namely polyphenols and vitamin E), are beneficial in maintaining leukocyte telomere length, to increase longevity (11b).
- polyunsaturated Omega-6 fatty acids such as linoleic and γ-linolenic acid.
Other nutrients: Many nuts are good sources of:
- Vitamins: E, riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B-6, and folate;
- Antioxidants such as carotenes, resveratrol, lutein, and cryptoxanthin
- Essential minerals: magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, copper, and selenium.
The most nutritious and healthful way to eat nuts is sprouted, or at least given an overnight soak in acidic water, then dried. Raw nuts are more healthful than toasted or roasted nuts, as roasting oxidizes the fragile oils, but if nuts are a significant part of your diet, you should sprout/soak them.
8 Nuts for Health Aging
From a Longevity Journal email (12); see Specific Nutrients section, below for more info about their benefits. Note this list of 8 different nuts are discussed in several sections below.
- Brazil nuts
- Macadamia nuts
Specific Nutrients of Several Nuts
Text for several of the following is quoted from Mercola (8b); To see his references which I have replaced with (*), refer to his article. I’ve also added information from other sites, as noted by reference numbers.
Almonds are an excellent source of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), providing 37 percent of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) (12), as well as riboflavin, which is excellent for brain health, magnesium and manganese.
They can also contribute to weight loss, prevent high blood pressure, and even combat the rise in blood sugar following a meal. They’re also potent anti-inflammatory foods, particularly for diabetics. (12)
Eating healthy amounts may improve your heart health,(*) help individuals who are overweight or obese achieve their weight loss goals and lower their blood pressure,(*) and lower post-meal blood sugar levels by 30 percent in people with diabetes.(*)
Further, they may improve your gut microbiota by supporting the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacillus, both beneficial bacteria.(*)
Brazil nuts one of the best sources of selenium, “an antioxidant that can fight cancer, protect your heart from cardiovascular disease, reduce mental decline, maintain healthy thyroid function, and give your immune system a boost. These amazing nuts are even known to help asthma sufferers, as selenium can combat the inflammation and oxidative stress that triggers the asthmatic reaction. … The cool thing is that just one serving of Brazil nuts is enough to get 100% of all the selenium you need in a day. Now that’s an amazing superfood!” (12)
They can also help with autoimmune and thyroid problems, cancer, AIDS, heart disease and asthma because they provide healthy amounts of selenium. Saddly as many as 1 billion people worldwide may be deficient in selenium. Studies say they have an antioxidant effect in the blood(*) and improve blood vessel function.(*)
Cashews: NOTE: technically, these are drupes (neither nuts nor legumes), but we eat them as nuts, or turn them into cashew cheese or butter. In the photo, right (from Wikipedia), the upper pear-shaped part (yellow in the photo) is the “cashew-apple,” and the lower green part is the “drupe,” which contains a single cashew seed, or what we call a nut.
Cashews improve the antioxidant potential of your diet(*) and also help to improve the blood pressure of people with metabolic syndrome.(*) A few studies, however, indicate that cashew consumption may raise the blood sugar of people with metabolic syndrome [insulin resistance]; however, more studies are needed.(*)
“They loaded with magnesium—in fact, a single serving delivers 20% of the magnesium you need every day. Cashews can help to prevent and reverse metabolic syndrome, and can reduce blood pressure while raising levels of good HDL cholesterol. While they won’t affect your body weight or blood sugar levels, they offer truly amazing cardioprotective benefits that can extend your lifespan and lower mortality rates significantly.” (12)
Hazelnuts “offer a lot of very important nutrition: fiber, protein, healthy fats, and both Vitamin E and magnesium. Studies have proven that pecans can improve biomarkers of cardiovascular risk by lowering both cholesterol and triglycerides in your bloodstream. Not only that, but they can actually elevate the levels of cardioprotective Vitamin E. More Vitamin E will help to stop the buildup of plaque on your arterial walls and reduce your risk of heart attacks, stroke, and other chronic cardiovascular problems.” (12)
Macadamia nuts “are loaded with monounsaturated fatty acids, a heart-smart form of plant-based fats that can reduce heart disease risk and contribute to graceful aging. Not only can these healthy fats lower LDL cholesterol, but they will also help to manage total cholesterol to maintain overall healthier cholesterol levels.
One study found that adding macadamia nuts to the diet produced effects similar to the American Heart Association’s “heart smart diet’. These tasty little nuts will combat inflammation and oxidative stress, protecting your body down to the cellular level and preventing premature biological aging.” (12)
Pecans are known to lower LDL cholesterol, preventing oxidation of the fatty particles that tend to build up as plaque in your blood vessels. The nuts are also rich in polyphenols and antioxidant compounds that improve your blood antioxidant profile and make your body more resistant to inflammation on a cellular level. (12)
Pistachios also contain high amounts of digestive fiber (3 grams per ounce), helping to assist smooth movement of the foods you eat through your colon. This fiber can “combat gut inflammation and provide needed nourishment to your gut bacteria. Pistachios also elevate HDL cholesterol, which helps your body to control LDL cholesterol on its own. They can reduce oxidative status in your body and reduce the oxidation of free radicals and other chemicals, preventing heart disease and combatting diabetes.” (12)
They’re also a good source of vitamin E and magnesium, critical for aging gracefully (12). Besides helping to optimize your cholesterol, pistachios help improve several aspects of heart health.(*)
Researchers gave volunteers foods that raise blood sugars significantly — rice, white bread, mashed potatoes and pasta — and found that adding these little green nuts helped lower blood sugar, sometimes significantly.(*)
Walnuts are one of the most popular nuts, so it’s good that they’re a great source of omega-3 fatty acids, making them beneficial for:
- your brain, and highly effective at combatting biological aging (12);
- prevention of coronary heart disease.(*)
- Improving the flow of blood through your circulatory system, which helps diabetics,(*)
- Increase inferential or deductive reasoning.(*)
- Help with maintaining leukocyte telomere length, to increase longevity (11b).
Peanuts, being a legume, may come with large amounts of extra oils that are not good for you. This is particularly true in peanut butter, with the unnecessary addition of sugar or worse, so always make sure your nuts and nut butters are free of these. They may also contain an imbalance of omega-6 fatty acids in relation to omega-3s.
They also may cause allergic reactions, and they also tend to be one of the most-sprayed with pesticides and laced with harmful metabolites known as aflatoxin.
Serving size recommendations
The American Heart Association recommends four (4) 1.5 oz servings of nuts per week. However, the FDA recommends one (1) 1.5 oz serving of nuts daily.
Recommended 1.5 oz or 42 g servings for common snack nuts are (3):
- Almonds: 23 nuts/ounce or 35 nuts per 1.5 oz serving
- Cashews: 18 nuts/ounce, or 27 nuts per 1.5 oz serving
- Hazelnuts (filberts): 20 nuts/ounce, or 30 nuts per 1.5 oz serving
- Peanuts: 18 nuts/ounce or 27 nuts per 1.5 oz serving
- Pecans: 19 halves/ounce or 29 nuts per 1.5 oz serving
- Pistachios: 49 nuts/ounce or 74 nuts per 1.5 oz serving
- Walnuts: 14 halves/ounce or 21 nuts per 1.5 oz serving
- Wikipedia on nuts: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nut_(fruit)
- Nutrition and You, Nuts Nutrition Facts (nutrition-and-you.com/nuts_nutrition.html)
- Strive newsletter for Healthy Living, from AARP Medicare Supplement Plans, Winter 2015 issue
- Spark People.com: sparkpeople.com/myspark/team_messageboard_thread.asp?board=0x1024x39701877
- Dr. Sara Solomon: drsarasolomon.com/do-you-eat-too-many-nuts
- New England Journal of Medicine November 21, 2013: 369:2001-2011 (nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1307352)
- NPR.org November 21, 2013 (npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2013/11/21/246549388/nuts-for-longevity-daily-handful-is-linked-to-longer-life)
- Mercola: (a) articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2015/06/22/raw-organic-nuts.aspx and (b) articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/12/19/nuts-proven-healthy.aspx
- Washington Post November 21, 2013 (washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/nuts-to-you-new-study-finds-regularly-eating-nuts-seems-to-extend-life-span/2013/11/21/2776cd22-52b8-11e3-9e2c-e1d01116fd98_story.html)
- International Journal of Epidemiology March 9, 2015 [Epub ahead of print] (ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/05/26/ije.dyv039.abstract
- Green Med Info:
- Longevity Journal email about The Top 8 Nuts for Health Aging; I’ve transcribed a pdf copy of the email text: CATSFORK/PDF Files > 8NutsForHealthyAging_LongevityProject_112921.pdf