By Cat, April 2019 (Image, right, from an article on Signature Foods; link has been lost)
I’ve been working on moving my health articles from my old iWeb site to this blog; in that process I review and update each article with new or changed information. I used to have a list of foods rich in healthful fats on my Cyclical Ketogenic Diet (CKD) page, and decided to add info about the fatty acid contents of each. That made the post too long, so I have moved it to this new posting, leaving just the list of foods on the CKD page. I also include a list of the un-healthful fats and the types of food that contain them, on this new posting.
- Includes: Lists of foods with 1. Healthful fats; 2. Not-healthful fats to avoid
- See also: 1. Diet and Health Menu; 2. Ketogenic Diet (Intro); 3. Cyclical Ketogenic Diet (CKD) and Metabolic Mitochondrial Therapy (MMT)
Dietary fats: lists of foods with healthful fats and not-healthful fats
Mercola (1 A, 1B) identifies the following foods as rich in healthful fats (text in brackets is for my additions; the bold-purple text links are to other articles on Cat’s Kitchen).
% of total fat (4, 3A):
- 15% saturated (as palmitic and stearic acids),
- 67% mono-unsaturated (as oleic acid) and
- 12% poly-unsaturated (as linoleic and linolenic acids);
Coconuts and coconut oil
Coconut oil is excellent for cooking as it can withstand higher temperatures without oxidizing); % of total fat (4):
- 90% saturated (as caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, and stearic acid)
- 6% g mono-unsaturated (as oleic acid)
- 2% g poly-unsaturated (as linoleic acid)
Fish and Fish Oils: Wild-caught Alaskan salmon, sardines, anchovies and/or krill oil
These provide animal-based omega-3 (DHA and EPA) (10D) fat while being low in [toxic] mercury. [I don’t recommend farmed seafood.] See also section: “Dietary fats: not-healthful fats to avoid,” below, regarding problem with fish oil from farmed fish.
- Anchovies; about 33% of total fat (14B); however, be sure to use wild-caught anchovies.
- Cod liver oil (many brands process their cod liver oil, decreasing its effectiveness, so choose carefully; I use Green Pastures Cod Liver Oil from fermented, wild-caught cod livers (15)). I also take Krill Oil; krill cannot be farmed so their oil is rich in DHA.
- Fish oil (if from wild-caught fatty fish, but many brands use farmed fish and process their fish oil, decreasing its effectiveness; see “Dietary fats: not-healthful fats to avoid,” below, for more on this).
- Krill oil; 14% of total fat (1C); krill cannot be farmed, so their oil is rich in DHA (see “Dietary fats: not-healthful fats to avoid,” below, for more on this).
- Sardines; about 24% of total fat (14A); however, be sure to use wild-caught sardines.
- Wild-caught salmon; 21% of total fat (average for 4 species: King, Sockeye, Silver and Pink Salmon (13)
Butter and Ghee (Clarified Butter) and Cream
Choose only dairy products made from Organic raw milk/cream of grass-fed dairy animals. Butter is excellent as an accompaniment and for baking; if used for sautéing, be sure the heat is low. Ghee is excellent for cooking and baking.
Butter and Ghee; % of total fat (6, 10B)
- 62% saturated (as butyric, capric, caproic, caprylic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic acids)
- 31.9% mono-unsaturated (as oleic acid)
- 0.3% poly-unsaturated (as linoleic and linolenic acids)
Cream: % of total fat for bovine (cow) cream (12)
- 63.8% saturated (as butyric, capric, caproic, caprylic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic acids)
- 22.4% mono-unsaturated (as oleic acid)
- 3.6% poly-unsaturated (as linoleic, conjugated linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids)
Cacao butter (raw)
% of total fats (2B):
36-43% saturated (as stearic, palmitic, myristic acid, arachidi, and lauric acid)
29–43% Mono-unsaturated (as oleic, and palmitoleic acids)
0 – 5% Poly-unsaturated (as linoleic and α-Linolenic acids)
Nuts, raw [preferably sprouted]
Macadamia and pecans are ideal as they are high in healthful fats, while being low in protein. The following fat composition data is for pecans; the percentages are of total nutrients, not just of total fats (7, 8A):
- 8.6% saturated (as palmitic, stearic and arachidic acids);
- 57% mono-unsaturated (as oleic and gadoleic acids);
- 3% poly-unsaturated (as linoleic and alpha linolenic acids)
Seeds, [raw, preferably sprouted]
This includes seeds like black sesame, cumin, pumpkin and hemp. The following fat composition data is for pumpkin seeds; the percentages are of total nutrients, not just of total fats (8B)
- 8.5% saturated (as lauric, myristic, palmitic, and acids);
- 14.3% mono-unsaturated (as oleic, palmitoleic and gadoleic acids);
- 20.9% poly-unsaturated (as linoleic and alpha linolenic acids)
Olives and olive oil
Make sure it’s third party certified, as 80 percent of olive oils are adulterated with vegetable oils). See Olive Oil: The Real Deal, or Adulterated/Fake for more on this. % of total fat: (4B)
- 14 – 21% saturated (as palmitic, stearic, arachidic, and behenic acids),
- 66 – 81% mono-unsaturated (as palmitoleic, oleic, gadoleic and erucic acids)
- 7 – 26% poly-unsaturated (as linoleic and linolenic acids)
Meats from grass fed and finished (pastured), preferably Organic, and humanely raised livestock
Avoid CAFO (concentrated animal feeding operation) animal products. See Lard, tallow, duck and goose fat, below, for composition info.
[This is not a natural triglyceride; rather is produced by reacting a mix of natural Medium Chain fatty acids with glycerol; because of this, I am skeptical about MCT oil and prefer natural fats/oils high in medium-chain fatty acids (6 – 12 carbons long). (10C)] % of total fat:
- 100% saturated; as caproic, caprylic, capric, and caproic acids (6, 8, 10 and 12 carbons, respectively)
Lard (pork fat)
Lard is rendered fat from hogs, and is excellent for cooking and baking (such as pie crusts). Be sure to select lard that is not hydrogenated, or render it yourself. See my posts on (originally from The Essentialist (11 A, 11B)) about rendering : Rendering Lard – the Perfect (& Original) Shortening and Rendering Lard in a Crockpot: The Process.
Percentage of total fats in lard (10A):
- 40% saturated
- 48% monounsaturated
- 12% polyunsaturated.
Tallow (beef & mutton fat)
This is another excellent animal fat for cooking; it is also good fo rbaking but you may not like the flavor. % of total fats (10A):
- 50-55% saturated,
- 40% monounsaturated,
- <3% polyunsaturated.
Duck & Goose fat
This was my Mom’s favorite fat for cooking and baking. She rendered it herself (see Lard, above for links to articles on how to render). % of total fats (10A):
- 35% saturated,
- 52% monounsaturated,
- 13% polyunsaturated.
Egg yolks from Organic, Pastured Hens
% of total fats (2C, 9)
38.5% saturated (as lignoceric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, acids)
48.2% Mono-unsaturated (as oleic, palmitoleic, and vaccenic acids); interesting note: vaccenic acid is a natural trans fatty acid
13.2% Poly-unsaturated (as arachidonic, linoleic, linolenic acids)
Dietary fats: not-healthful fats to avoid
- Fats: Partially-hydrogenated trans fat (not natural) which act as a pro-oxidant [encourages oxidation];
- Fish oils from farmed fish.* This is because they are not fed their normal diet rich in DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid), essential Omega-6 fatty acids. Instead they are fed a primarily vegetarian diet, replacing DHA with ALA (alpha linolenic acid), an essential Omega-3 fatty acid found in plant oils. (ALA is not to be confused with LA (linoleic acid), a nonessential Omega-6 fatty acid). For humans, ALA is not useful until it is converted to DHA or EPA (Omega-6 fatty acids). The bottom line is to eat naturally raised foods. The following are other notes on fish oil:
- Dr. Al Sears, in a sales pitch for his Omega Rejuvenol supplement,* says that ALA can harm the brain, leading to memory issues, while DHA can restore the brain and memory.
- I take Blue Ice Fermented Cod Liver Oil, which comes from “Alaska Cod that have been exclusively wild-caught in the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands region of Alaska.” (15) This oil has an A:D ratio of 10:1, which meets WAPF recommendations(16). I also take Krill Oil; krill cannot be farmed so their oil is rich in DHA.
- It is also important to have a proper balance between Vitamins A and D. Fish oil is a good source of vitamins A and D, but highly processed fish oil does not retain the proper balance. Most fish oils do not meet the recommended A:D ratio of 10:1. However, vitamin A is also present in many foods, so your total A:D ratio would be higher than it is in the fish oil.
- Highly refined poly-unsaturated seed oils (aka “vegetable oils” such as corn, soy and canola oils) which are high in damaged omega-6 fats, and produce toxic oxidation products like cyclic aldehydes when heated. Most are also GMO. Dr. Mercola has an excellent article on all the harm highly refined seed oils can do (1d). The only safe way to consume seed oils is if they are cold-pressed; the heat and pressure from most processing is what does the damage to the oils.
- Sadly, these are the most-used fats in our modern times. Mercola’s article (1d) states: “One-third of US Caloric Intake is Seed Oils.” They are used in commercial salad dressings, for deep-fat frying, and even in some baked goods.
- I make my own salad dressings using Organic olive oil instead of seed oils; and while I don’t deep-fry very often, when I do, I use my homemade lard and Organic coconut oil. See also my article: Rendering Lard – the Perfect (& Original) Shortening.
- Interesterified fats, which are an unnatural combination of natural fats. See my article: Chemically Altered Fats for more.
- Processed/packaged foods, because they typically contain inexpensive synthetic (not natural) fats, or altered natural fats. Also common in restaurant foods.
‘* My attention was drawn to the farmed fish issue by Dr. Al Sears’s sales pitch for his Omega Rejuvenol supplement (17). It is not currently available on Amazon (ASIN B00W7QRI96).
- Basic Introduction to Metabolic Mitochondrial Therapy: articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2017/05/21/metabolic-mitochondrial-therapy-introduction.aspx
- Beginner’s Guide to the Ketogenic Diet: articles.mercola.com/ketogenic-diet.aspx
- Krill vs Fish Oil: mercola.com/infographics/fish-oil-vs-krill-oil.htm
- The harm of seed oils (aka “vegetable oils:” articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2021/10/16/omega-6-apocalypse.aspx
- (4) healthyeating.sfgate.com/type-fat-avocado-5397.html
- (5) Essoteric Oils:
- (6) livestrong.com/article/363811-the-fatty-acid-composition-of-coconut-oil/
- (7) webexhibits.org/butter/compounds-fatty.html
- (8) cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/S0007114506003564
- (9) The PaleoDiet:
- (10) internationalegg.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Tesedo%20-%202006.pdf
- Cat’s Kitchen:
- Good Fats for Cooking: catsfork.com/CatsKitchen/good-fats-for-cooking/
- Ghee – Clarified Butter: catsfork.com/CatsKitchen/ghee-clarified-butter/
- Good (Healthful) vs Bad (Not Healthful) Fats and Oils: catsfork.com/CatsKitchen/good-healthful-vs-bad-not-healthful-fats-and-oils/
- Essential Fats — A Case of Balance): catsfork.com/…/essential-fats-a-case-of-balance
- The EssentiaList (Cat is the editor of this website):
- Rendering Lard – the Perfect (& Original) Shortening: essentialstuff.org/2010/07/11/Cat/rendering-lard-the-perfect-original-shortening/The EssentiaList (Cat’s articles on that site):
- Rendering Lard in a Crockpot: The Process: essentialstuff.org/2010/10/24/Cat/rendering-lard-crockpot-process/
- Fat Secret:
- Blue Ice: greenpasture.org/fermented-cod-liver-oil-liquid/
- WAPF: chapters.westonaprice.org/burnsvillenc/about-westin-a-price/wapf-dietary-guidelines/